Understanding of the internal control system of commercial banks case study: United Bank for Africa
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The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the internal control system at UBA Bank Uganda Limited. The study was guided by the research objectives; to analyze the internal control activities in UBA Uganda Limited, to assess the internal control challenges that hinder its effective implementation in in UBA Uganda Limited and to find out recommendations on strategies that can be employed to successfully implement internal controls in UBA Uganda Limited. The Descriptive Survey research design was used for its expansive nature, enabling the comprehensive description of characteristics within larger populations, while also offering a degree of flexibility. The research in question adopted a quantitative approach. The study achieved a robust 97% response rate from the 152 questionnaires distributed. The demographic analysis revealed a predominant male representation (58.1%) among respondents, Furthermore, the assessment demonstrated a significant concentration of respondents aged 34 to 41 years (65.5%), with a notable presence of Bachelor's (53.4%) and Master's (25.7%) degree holders, suggesting a higher involvement of individuals with higher educational qualifications in evaluating the internal control system. Moreover, married individuals (73.0%) and those with mid-range tenures of 2-9 years of service (43.2% and 45.9%) were prominently represented, with Middle Managers (78.4%) being the primary category involved in assessing the internal control system at UBA Bank Uganda Limited. The findings revealed that internal control activities at UBA Uganda Limited highlighted a strong foundation built on structured processes, ethical values, and proactive risk management strategies. The organization exhibits robust support from top management for integrity and ethical values, fostering a culture that values accountability and clarity in operational roles. Moderate levels of workplace pressure, inadequate fraud control measures, and the perception of impunity for wrongdoers posed risks to the integrity of internal controls. Insufficient remuneration, inadequate supervision, and technological inadequacies further underscore the need for addressing systemic issues affecting control effectiveness. The study recommended that UBA Uganda Limited should prioritize strengthening fraud control mechanisms to mitigate financial and reputational risks. This includes implementing robust fraud detection and prevention strategies to address potential vulnerabilities. Further studies should focus on an in-depth analysis to understand the specific impact of workplace pressures and inadequate remuneration on internal control effectiveness. Understanding these correlations can aid in targeted interventions.