Comparative study of Tsetse and Trypanosomosis control methods in Kasese District
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A study was done in Karusandara sub-county, Kasese District, Uganda to compare efficiency of proper control of tsetse flies and trypanosomosis with the common control practices found. Test studies were done in two parishes (Karusandara and Kibuga) and control studies done in two parishes of Kabukero and Kanamba. In test parishes cattle were sprayed with deltamethrin once every two weeks, prophylactic treatment of cattle using Samorin® and deployment of tsetse traps were effected. Meanwhile in control parishes, cattle continued to be sprayed with deltamethrin. Before intervention all parishes, had a high prevalence of trypanosomosis (40.2±2.5% on average) due to Trypanosome congolense and T. vivax in cattle. Karusandara parish had highly significant (P>0.01, t=8.1) prevalence of trypanosomosis (46.2±1.1%) than those in Kanamba (37±1%) Kibuga (42.1±0.6%). There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in prevalence of trypanosomosis in cattle before intervention between Kanamba and Kabukero (37±0.2%). Also before intervention, there was high tsetse fly challenge (31.2 flies per trap per 72 hours catch effort), being 27.8 flies in Kibuga and 34.5 flies in Karusandara. The high prevalence of trypanosomosis and infestation of tsetse flies was attributed to poor tsetse control methods. Despite the fact that all of the farmers were aware of negative effects of trypanosomosis on their cattle only 46% were readily willing to participate in trypanosomosis control. With the combination of use of trypanocides, monthly spraying with Decatix® and deployment of traps in Kibuga and Karusandara parishes, there was steady reduction of tsetse fly infestation with 80% reduction achieved in the second month of application. Similarly, there was reduction of trypanosomosis prevalence in cattle in Kibuga and Karusandara with 80% reduction also observed in the second month of application. Meanwhile in control parishes (Kanamba and Kabukero) where traditional methods of control were practiced the prevalence of trypanosomosis among cattle remained the same. This means that a combination of use traps, with regular use of trypanocides (prophylactic treatment using Samorin® and treatment of clinical cases using Berenil® and spraying cattle bi-weekly using Decatix® could significantly reduce trypanosomosis in Kasese District. This could be improved further by community participation.