The potential of Moringa oleifera, Syzygium cumini and Artocarpus heterophyllus seeds as coagulants in treatment of surface water
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The study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Moringa, Java plum and Jackfruit seeds as coagulants in treatment of turbid water. Pond water samples were collected and classified into low, medium and high initial turbidities before coagulation tests. The plant seeds were treated with water and saline solution to produce seed extracts for coagulation activity using a standard jar test. The turbidity removal of seed type and solvent seed extracts on pond water were compared. The antimicrobial and inhibitory concentration of crude seed extracts (CSEs) were determined. Solvent seed extracts showed different turbidity removal on pond water. Water, 0.5MNaCl and 1M NaCl Moringa extracts had different (P<0.05) coagulation activity of 92%, 74% and 80 % at 20mg/l in low turbidity and 90%, 89% and 84% at 40mg/l in medium turbidity. Water extract and saline (0.5M) Moringa extracts were the best coagulant at 60mg/l with turbidity reduction of 97% in high turbidity. Water, 0.5MNaCl and 1MNaCl Java plum extracts had turbidity removal of 69%, 65% and 59% at a dose of 40mg/l in low turbidity; 85%, 82% and 85% at 40mg/l in medium turbidity; 94%, 90% and 94% at 60mg/l in high turbidity. In Jackfruit, water, 0.5MNaCl and 1MNaCl extracts had turbidity reduction of 74%, 70%, and 63.5% at 40mg/l in low turbid water; 92%, 80%, and 89% at 40 mg/l in medium turbidity; 95%, 86.5% and 93% at 60mg/l in high turbidity. The turbidity removal of seed extracts on pond water varied. Alum and Moringa cake, Java plum and Jackfruit water extracts had turbidity reduction of 97%, 86.5%, 70% and 74% at 20mg/l in low turbidity; 98.5%, 90%, 86.5% and 90% at 40mg/l in medium turbidity; 98.5%, 96.5%, 88.5% and 95% 40mg/l in high turbidity. Alum and Moringa, Java plum and Jackfruit saline (0.5MNaCl) extracts had turbidity reduction of 98%, 79%, 63.5% and 73.5% at 40mg/l in low turbid water; 98.5%, 88%, 80% and 89% at 40 mg/l in medium turbidity; 98.5%, 97%, 90.5% and 96.5% at 60mg/l in high turbidity. Turbidity reduction of Alum and Moringa, Java plum and Jackfruit saline (1MNaCl) extracts was 98%, 78.5%, 60% and 65.5% at 40 mgl in low turbidity; 98%, and 88.5%, 88.6% and 91% at 40mg/l in medium turbidity; 98.7%, 92.5%, 95.6% and 95% at 60mg/l in high turbidity, respectively. The number of total coliform in pond water decreased with increase in extract concentration. The efficacy (total coliforms reduction) of Moringa, Jackfruit and Java plum was 77 %, 75% and 64% at 100mg/l, respectively. Total coliform reduction ranged from 62% to 94% Moringa, 70 to 89% Jackfruit and 60-69% Java plum. Fifty percent reduction of Coliform population was attained at 30mg/l, 30mg/l and 20mg/l with Moringa, Java plum and Jackfruit water extracts respectively. Coliform bacteria reduction or disinfection was high in water extracts with reduction of 67 to 89%. Jackfruit had a considerable high disinfection potential, followed by moringa and by Java plum. Plant seed extracts were able to significantly reduce feacal coliform. Feacal coliform reduction was 64%, 62% and 81% with Moringa, Java plum and Jackfruit extracts, respectively. The feacal coliform reduction ranged from 51 to 87% Moringa, 54 to 69% Java plum and 66 to 95% Jackfruit solvent extracts. Fifty percent reduction (LD50) of feacal coliforms were achieved at 20mg/l, 30mg/l and 20mg/l with Moringa Java plum and Jackfruit water extracts. The seed extracts showed antimicrobial and inhibitory potential on the bacteria isolates. Moringa, Java plum and Jackfruit seed extracts gave diameter of inhibition zone range 7 to 14, 8 to 12 and 7 to 14mm, respectively. At a dose of 100mg/l, both Moringa and Jackfruit showed a promising antibacterial activity (inhibition diameter zone 14mm) compared to Java plum (diameter inhibition zone 12mm). Diameter of inhibition zone increased with the concentration of seed extracts. The seed extracts showed varied inhibition potential on selected microbial species. Moringa had the lowest inhibitory concentration (63µg/ml) followed by Jackfruit (125µg/ml) and Java plum (250µg/ml) on microbial species. Bacteria isolates showed varied sensitivity to antimicrobial agents. Staphylococcus aureus was the most susceptible of all microbes to seed extracts compared to Staphylococcus faecalis, Salmonella typhi and Salmonella dysenteriae which seemed to be less susceptible to seed extracts or more resistant.