Factors Associated With Cervical Cancer Screening. A Case Study of Mukono Municipality
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The main objective of the study was to assess the factors associated with knowledge and attitudes towards cervical cancer screening that could influence females to undertake cervical cancer screening. Cross-sectional descriptive study of 384 women aged 15-49 was done using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. At bivariate level of analysis, chi-square tests were used and logistic regression analysis was performed at multivariable level. The model’s results show that the younger women had less odds of HPV screening uptake (0.623, P=0.002) compared to the older ones while post-secondary educated women had higher odds of HPV screening uptake (OR=1.525, P=0.000) compared to those who had primary education. While as, women in the highest wealth quintile had higher odds of HPV screening uptake (OR=1.363, 0.000) compared to those in lowest wealth quintile, Muslim women had less odds of HPV screening uptake (OR=0.655, 0.001) compared to their counterparts (Christians). In addition, women who had knowledge about HPV and screening had higher odds of HPV screening uptake (OR=33.4, P=0.000) compared to the ones with no knowledge while as women with low attitudes towards HPV screening had less odds of HPV screening uptake (OR=0.014, P=0.00) and the women who reported “ignorance” as the major barrier to cervical cancer screening had less odds of HPV screening uptake (OR=0.711, P=0.001) compared to their counterparts and unmarried women had higher odds of HPV screening uptake (OR=1.610, P=0.003) compared to the married. Conclusively, the study showed low uptake of HPV screening (38% of 384 women) who undertook screening due to the majority of women who were young, less educated, low income earners and ignorant about cervical cancer and screening. Therefore, this study recommends the concerned initiatives, the government, private partners to revise and strictly implement HPV preventive policy programs; integrate HPV screening into health programs such as anti- HIV/AIDS/Malaria programs (for example, BCC), and incorporating HPV screening program into the education curriculum of Uganda in order to increase women’s awareness, knowledge, motivation and participation in HPV screening, hence reduce HPV prevalence and mortality rates due HPV in Mukono Municipality and in Uganda as a whole.