Effects of stormwater and household mitigation options in Kasese Municipality, Uganda
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This study estimated the volume of stormwater generated in the different areas of Kasese Municipality, assessed the effects of stormwater to Infrastructure and health of the community; it also identified the dominant community land use practices and their contribution as mitigation of exposure to effects of stormwater in Kasese Municipality. The volume of stormwater was generated using the curve number approach. A semi-structured interview and transect walk were used to assess the community effects (perceived effects of stormwater on infrastructure (roads and buildings), aesthetic value and community livelihoods (health, gardens and shelter)) and to identify the interventions to mitigate their exposure to the effects. Clinical and climate data 2013 and 2014 and samples of stormwater were collected and analysed for correlations and bacteriological characteristics. Stormwater in the Central Division of Kasese Municipality was estimated to be 1,935.5 m3 and 1,117.5 m3, accounting for 94% and 62% of the total rainfall received during the years 2013 and 2014 respectively. It varied from one month to another and was highest in October (1,057.7 m3) 2013 and September (404. 9 m3) 2014 during the rainy seasons and least March (1.6 m3) 2013 and December (0.65 m3) 2014 when low precipitation was recorded. Values of 0 m3 were also calculated for several months when no precipitation was recorded. The highest volume of stormwater was generated in the built up landuse area for both 2013 and 2014 (1126.6 m3 and 793.3 m3) Nyakabingo II Ward (654 m3 and 460 m3) in 2013 and 2014 (Figure 4.2). The least stormwater volume was generated in the row crops land use in Kirembe II with for both years (12.7 m3 and 8.9 m3). Effect assessment indicated creation of gullies 314%, highest in Kirembe II with 22.3% and least in Railway with 10% and the least was collapse of pit latrines 5%. There was a significant relationship between stormwater and infectious disease prevalence. Typhoid (p = 0.077), intestinal worms (p = 0.091), Diarrhea (p = 0.052), Malaria (p = 0.093), and Gastrointestinal disorders (p = -0.096) were fairly correlated with stormwater. From the stormwater samples that were collected, analysis showed that the levels of faecal coliform (9330 to 20500 per 100ml) and salmonella typhii (32 to 122 per 100ml in july) present far exceeded the standards set by NWSC (00 per 100 ml) and these contaminate portable water, stormwater, food stuffs and child play areas. Most of the community interventions were only moderately effective most commonly grassing compounds 20.9% and least concrete fencing 6.9%. Council should engage its community in best practices to mitigate.