Prevalence of anemia and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic at Lira Regional Referral Hospital, Uganda
MetadataShow full item record
Background: In Uganda, anemia among pregnant women is estimated at 38% and it has numerous causes but iron deficiency is thought to be the leading cause. Anemia during pregnancy has been associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes. However, the prevalence and factors associated with anemia during pregnancy remain poorly studied in our setting. Therefore, this study aimed at determining the prevalence and factors associated with anemia among pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic (ANC) at Lira regional referral hospital, Uganda. Methodology: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted among 320 pregnant women attending the ANC clinic at Lira regional referral hospital, Uganda. Maternal hemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations were determined using Sysmex XS-1000i automated hematology analyzer and Cobas 6000 automated analyzer respectively. Socio-demographics characteristics, obstetric history, dietary pattern, and components of minimum public healthcare package for pregnant women were assessed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with anemia during pregnancy. Results: The prevalence of anemia (Hb < 11.0 g/dl) and iron deficiency anemia (Hb < 11.0 g/dl and serum ferritin < 30 μg/L) were 20.3% and 10% respectively. Consumption of meat and poultry less than three times a week (AOR: 1.923; 95% CI: 1.033-3.579), consumption of legumes and cereals less than three times a week (AOR: 2.758; 95% CI: 1.233-6.170) and pica (AOR: 2.137; 95% CI: 1.143-3.994) were found to be associated with anemia during pregnancy. Conclusion and recommendation: The prevalence of anemia during pregnancy in this study was lower than the national average with close to 50% of the anemia attributed to iron deficiency. Low consumption of foods rich in iron and pica were associated with anemia during pregnancy. Midwives should focus on the dietary patterns of pregnant women in order to further lower the burden of anemia during pregnancy.