Clinical spectrum, risk factors and outcome of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in patients with tuberculosis-HIV coinfection
The TB-IRIS study group
MetadataShow full item record
BACKGROUND: Here, we aimed to determine the clinical spectrum, predictors and outcomes of paradoxical tuberculosis-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) in a resource-limited setting. METHODS: In a prospective cohort, we studied 254 patients with tuberculosis and HIV coinfection commencing antiretroviral therapy (ART). We identified patients with TB-IRIS using the International Network for Studies Against HIV-Associated IRIS (INSHI) case definition. Risk factors and clinical outcomes of TB-IRIS were determined and reported. RESULTS: A total of 53 (21%) patients developed TB-IRIS a median of 2 weeks (IQR 12-22 days) after starting ART. The majority of the patients (70%) with TB-IRIS had extrapulmonary manifestations of TB-IRIS. In a multiple logistic regression model, baseline haemoglobin <100 g/l (OR 2.23 [95% CI 1.08-4.60]; P=0.031) and baseline CD4(+) T-cell count <50 cells/μl (OR 4.13 [95% CI 1.80-9.51]; P=0.001) were significant predictors of IRIS. Seven additional patients fulfilled all INSHI criteria of TB-IRIS but had the episode of TB-IRIS later than 3 months after ART start. CONCLUSIONS: TB-IRIS was a frequent reason for clinical deterioration among patients with TB commencing ART but was not a primary contributor to mortality. Patients with advanced CD4 depletion and anaemia were at increased risk of TB-IRIS. Some patients developed late-onset TB-IRIS and/or a recurrent TB-IRIS episode.